What is whiplash?
Facts About Whiplash Injuries
- Low speed rear impact crashes (LOSRIC) don’t cause injuries.
- Injuries heal in 6-12 weeks.
- Litigation has an effect on the patient’s recovery.
- The patient’s pre-injury psychological makeup affects recovery.
- Greater vehicle damage=greater occupant injury.
- Accident reconstructionists can predic injury potential.
- Most injuries occur at crash speeds below 12 mph.
- Most cars withstand 8-12 mph impact without structural damage.
- More then half of all LOSRIC injuries occur without vehicle damage.
- There is no correlation between vehicle damage and outcome.
- The peak acceleration of the head is much greater than the peak acceleration of the vehicle.
- A 5 mph ΔV (delta V or “Change in velocity”) crash typically produces about 10-12 g of acceleration of the occupant’s head.
Occupant Injury Thresholds on rear end Collisions
ΔV over 12mph
ΔV under 6mph
Statistics of whiplash injury:
- More than 3 million Americans are injured this way each year.
- The reported risk of injury in a low speed rear impact crash (LOSRIC) is 35-68%. The Japanese Automobile Insurance Rating Association reports a 50% neck injury rate.
- About 10% of those injured become permanently disabled.
- “Minor” neck injuries account for up to 60% of all permanent impairment claims.
- So, for every 6,000,000 occupants in LOSRIC:
1. About 3,000,000 will be injured.
2. About 1,500,000 will have chronic pain. About 300,000 of these will also become disabled; usually due to pain.
- Nearly half of all chronic neck pain in America is due to car crashes – mostly LOSRIC.
- About 9% of all Americans suffer from chronic neck pain due to LOSRIC
- Kids are at 2/3 the risk of adults.
Risk factors for injury and/or poor outcome:
- Rear directionimpact.
- Limited range of motion; neurological symptoms after crash
- Ligamentous instability after crash.
- Degenerative disease, headaches, or neck injury or pain prior to crash.
- Head turned at impact, or occupant in poor position at impact.
- Non-awareness of impact.
- Non-failure of seat back.
- The use of seat belt/shoulder harness.
- No head restraint or poor heaf restraint position.
- Female gender or advanced age.
Real world occupants?
The injury threshold for females, or those caught unaware, or those with:
- Head turned
- Prior injury
- Prior headaches
- Prior neck pain
- Poor head restraints
- Poor position in car
- Advance age
- Disc diseas
- Shoulder harness
- Rear impact
- Non-failure of seat
will usually drop below 5 mph, particularly with multiples of these risk factors.
Common Symptoms Following Whiplash
Neck Pain ————————————————————– 92%
Headache ————————————————————– 57%
Fatigue —————————————————————— 56%
Shoulder pain ———————————————————- 49%
Anxiety ——————————————————————- 44%
Interscapular pain —————————————————- 42%
Low back pain ——————————————————— 39%
Sleep disturbance —————————————————- 39%
Upper limb paresthesia ———————————————- 30%
Sensitivity to noise —————————————————- 29%
Impaired concentration ——————————————– 26 %
Blurred vision ——————————————————– 21%
Irritability ————————————————————– 21%
Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) ——————————- 16%
Dizziness ————————————————————– 15%
Forgetfulness ——————————————————— 15%
Upper limb pain —————————————————— 12%
Upper limb weakness ———————————————– 6%
Tinnitus (ringing in ears) ——————————————– 4%
Jaw/facial pain (TMJ) ———————————————— 4%+
Office Phone (801) 901-4261
Address is: Utah Health Center 5526 Van Winkle #A, Murray, UT 84117